Learn more about pollen - Cypress Pine

Cypress Pine (Species, Cupressus sp. and Callitris sp.; Family, Cupressaceae)

Densely branched tree or shrub with male and female cones. There are over 20 species of the introduced Cypress (Cupressus sp.) planted in and around Canberra. The native Cypress pine (Callitris sp.) is also found in gardens and in fire protected areas such as the Molongolo Gorge. They are wind-pollinated and produce copious amounts of pollen during July to December.

White Cypress (Murray) Pine (Callitris glaucophylla) is one of the few Australian trees that produces highly allergenic pollen. Its growth extends from the western slopes and plains of Eastern Australia, but it can be found planted in and around Canberra.

The pollen from introduced Cupressus sp. has been widely reported to cause winter conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and asthma in various parts of the world and is becoming a major health problem in some northern hemisphere Mediterranean countries.

Distribution of Cupressaceae (left: Callitris glaucophylla; right: Cupressaceae) from Atlas of Living Australia occurence maps





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Learn more about pollen - Pine trees

Pine (Species, Pinus sp.; Family, Pinaceae)

There are a diverse range of Pine trees planted in and around Canberra with over 20 species found in gardens and more extensiveparklands and plantations. They are wind-pollinated and produce copious amounts of pollen during August to November when "dust clouds" of pollen can be seen blowing from the trees or settling in ponds and pools leaving a distinctive yellow "smear" on the surface. 

The pollen grains are large with a wing structure that facilitates long-distance dispersal on windy days. Pine pollen allergies are similar to other pollen allergies, and many people with pine pollen allergy are also allergic to grass pollen.

Distribution of Pinus sp. (Atlas of Living Australia occurence map)


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Strong Winds Bring Big Pollen

Spring has well and truely sprung in Canberra and along with it comes some wild weather. On Tuesday 15th September Canberra experienced strong winds from a NNW direction, reaching speeds of 50km/hr in the morning, that may be a harbinger for the season to come. The Canberra Pollen team have begun to monitor daily pollen in our air in order to test the monitoring system and to ready ourselves for the official start of the counting and forcast on October 1. What we saw in our pollen trap showed us that, even though there is as yet little grass pollen present, there are extreme levels of other pollen types currently swirling around the ACT. These include Cupressaceae ("Cypress"), Pinus ("Pine"), and Fraxinus (Ash), all trees that are commonly planted in and around Canberra (See image below).

All these pollen types can produce allergic reactions in some people so that best way to be aware of how your hay fever symptoms are tracking with the changes in airbourne pollen is by downloading our app CanberaPollen and following us on Twitter (@CanberraPollen).

Next Sunday the BOM forecast indicates that the northwesterly winds will pick up again in combination with a warm sunny day that will bring people out to enjoy the wonderful things that Canberra has to offer. As we approach the onset of the grass pollen season it would be wise for those who suffer from hayfever to take precautions when going out on days like this.

Big Pollen In Canberra (Sept)


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Learn more about pollen before the hay fever season starts in Canberra

Almost 1 in 6 people in Canberra suffer from hay fever. One way of understanding how best to cope with hay fever is to learn more about pollen before the season starts.

At the moment the main allergenic pollen in the air come from the introduced cypress, ash and pine trees. Overall, the pasture grasses and weeds are the worst offenders. These include perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), couch or Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and many others. There is also increasing recognition of the importance of other exotic plants such as silver birch and olive trees in and around Canberra.

Prof Simon Haberle of the @CanberraPollen team, in collaboration with the Australian Pollen Allergen Partnership (APAP), recently produced the first Australasian Pollen Calendar based on historic data generated in major cities across Australia and New Zealand (read more here: http://goo.gl/G9lJzQ). The research highlights the strong climatic controls on allergenic pollen seasons and the need for better coordination between researchers, governments and health departments in order to improve the public health outcomes for sufferes of hay fever and other respiratory related disease.

Over the next week @CanberraPollen will show you which pollen types cause hay fever in the Canberra region and when they are most prevalent in the air.



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Hotspots for Hay Fever in the Capital

Where do people suffer most during the spring/summer pollen season in the ACT and surrounds?

The pollen monitoring season may have come to a end on the 31st December 2014 but we can now start to sift through the data and begin to discover new insights into how pollen impacts people in our region. As we predicted earlier 2014 has been one of the more severe seasons on record with just under 2500 grass pollen grains caught in our trap. That’s an average of just under 30 grass pollen grains per day, a number that sits close to our high range. We also had a record run of 14 consecutive high to severe pollen days this season – these are days when most people with a grass pollen allergy experienced symptoms.  The beginning of this period (26th October) was also a day of record asthma-related presentations to the Emergency department at the Canberra Hospital (see Figure 1).


Figure 1. The cumulative total of grass pollen grains for four seasons in Canberra (2007-2009 and 2014).

One of the exciting features of the Canberra Pollen monitoring project is the survey question where you’ve been able to tell us through our app about your daily hay fever symptoms. This season we received an amazing 6250 survey responses from 1250 different people. This experiment in ‘citizen science’ has provided us with a fantastic and quite unique insight into hay fever in Canberra and how it relates to what we do, which is count grass pollen.

The first outcome is that it's been satisfying to see that the average daily score for hay fever symptoms closely tracks our daily grass pollen count (see Figure 2). We'll be talking a lot more about this relationship down the track and comparing this with our collaborators in Melbourne where this years grass pollen season was remarkably mild.

Figure 2. The cumulative total of grass pollen grains versus the mean survey response for 2014. 0 = no symptoms -> 5 = severe symptoms.

The second outcome is that the information you provided to us has allowed us to pinpoint suburbs within the ACT and immediate surrounds that recorded the most severe hay fever suffering during the 2014 season (see Figure 3). The responses to the survey that you sent to us were broken down into five categories that represent the deviation from the mean response across the region. The results show that there are a number of suburbs that are well above the regional mean and can be considered as hotspots for hay fever. Hotspot suburbs include Casey, Franklin and Reid in northern Canberra, Gilmore, Isabella Plains and Calwell in southern Canberra, and Karabah and Jerrabomberra across the border in Queanbeyan.


Figure 3. Hotspots for hay fever suffering in Canberra and the region for 2014. Suburbs marked in red are those where respondents reported the highest levels of hay fever suffering throughout the season. Suburbs marks in blue show a strong negative deviation from the mean implying low levels of hay fever suffering across the season.

The reason for these hotspots remains unclear as there are no obvious correlations with environmental factors (e.g. proximity to grasslands) or socio-economic factors (e.g. average income or average age) that distinguish these suburbs from others in the region. One factor that may be worth further examination is the possibility that a higher proportion of residents in these suburbs may be made up of people who did not grow up in Canberra, but have moved here from interstate in the recent past, and therefore are potentially more susceptible to suffer from new-onset hay fever due to being exposed to a new environment with high pollen counts. While we can speculate on the possible causes it’s also important to remember that this is the first year of our survey and with additional seasonal data the propensity for a suburb to be marked as a hotspot for hay fever suffering may change over time.

When the 2015 spring/summer season starts again please keep those survey responses rolling in as they will help us enormously to improve this service.

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